G.S. Online Program

ETHICS

Dimension of Ethics

One aspect of ethics is practical or applied ethics. In this, questions of good and bad, and questions of right and wrong are understood by connecting them with some practical issues. Like testing cosmetics on animals, same-sex marriage, surrogacy, cloning, fetal testing, gender testing, mercy death, environmental refugee and global warming and practical issues like good, bad, right, wrong values ​​or standards. Looking around is a matter of practical ethics.
In practical ethics, people’s moral opinion is studied on a variety of issues, while in normative ethics the qualities and functions of people and institutions are evaluated. Whereas in practical ethics, people express moral opinion and moral literacy about issues. Where normative ethics is concerned with the moral sensitivity of the individual, practical ethics is concerned with the moral literacy of the individual.
Ethics in governance
To carry out the policies of governmental organizations like legislature, executive, new government, political parties, alliances, interest groups, media, NGO with moral grounds to prevent corruption related to regulation and privatization in human beings.
The second administrative reforms report, Ethics in Governance, said – “What is needed with liberalization is political and governance reform” can be done only when honesty and moral ground are developed.
Due to erosion of morality in governance in India
Political
– Narrow interests, valueless politics
– Criminalization of politics
– Use of illegal money in politics
– Deteriorating alliances in elections
– Non-implementation of ethical code and code of conduct for ministers and MPs.
– No early disposal of election petitions.
Administration
– Seeing loyalty rather than competence in transfer and appointment.
–  Article 311; Constitutional protection of administrative officers.
– Discretionary powers in regulation and privatization.
The business
– Decline of moral values ​​in the dark race of profits.
Question: Discuss the main reasons for the degradation of morality in governance in India. ; 150 words
Political reasons
For the narrow minded, the leaders enlisted the help of criminals, sacrificing all values ​​to win the election. Due to which criminalization of criminals started. Little by little the criminals got involved in politics to win the elections and build a shield against the police system. The arrival of musclemen led to the use of illegal money in politics and the huge expenses of elections. Filled with grains.
The politics of coalition has played a major role in the erosion of morality in India. Giving money to small parties to get a majority; this is the result of buying and selling.
Due to the non-implementation of the Code of Ethics and Ethics for ministers and MPs, their illegal and immoral actions are not being controlled.
In administration
Preference to loyalty rather than merit in transfers and appointments is the reason for the erosion of morality in the administrative machinery. When an administrative officer is associated with the immoral work of the ministers of the government, the then government gives him promotion or some other better department, and if he did not cooperate in the unethical work, then his transfer or appointment would be replaced against that officer. is.
In Article 311 of the Indian Constitution, they are exercising discretionary powers given to administrative officials for personal gain. They are enforcing the same rules in private sector by which the private sector is profitable.
In Business
The private sector does not think in the interest of consumers in the desire for profit. They are resorting to such unethical routes, which increase their trade and profits.
In the field of justice
Lower courts are not meant for the poor and weaker sections. By taking the help of bribe, the strong classes get favor.
The appointments of judges are done by the collegium process, which has given autonomy to the judiciary but transparency in them is suspicious. The reasons mentioned above are responsible for the degradation of morality in India.
One issue of practical ethics is the enforcement or removal of capital punishment. The following are the legislative and ethical issues related to the death penalty.
1. The death penalty was not completely banned by the United Nations prior to 2008. Part-3 Article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of the United Nations of 1967 has accepted the death penalty.
2. This covenant explained giving death penalty for very serious offenses. The right to pardon and commutation was also accepted. It talked about not giving death penalty to a person under 18 years of age. Also, the implementation of capital punishment on women during pregnancy was not accepted.
3. In 2008, the resolution on the imposition of the death penalty was passed by the General Assembly of N.
Under the leadership of European countries, the death penalty was considered a cruel practice, it was said to be immoral and it was said to stop it. But opponents of this proposal called this proposal against sovereignty.
1. Article 21, inter alia, accepts the death penalty from the procedure established by law.
2. Article 72 empowers the President to pardon the death penalty.
3. Article 161, incorporates the power of the Governor to reduce the death penalty.
4. Similarly, there is provision of death penalty for murder in section 302 of IPC.
5. Death penalty is given in case of 5 offenses in India.
– Against the Government of India
–  robbery including murder
– murder
–  Pardon after child molestation
– against innocent person
Opponents of capital punishment raise the following ethical issues –
1. Extreme violation of human rights, man cannot even take away the life he cannot give.
2. Murder by state.
3. The death penalty eliminates the possibility of human genes to be reformed, rehabilitated and met in society.
4. It is the simplest solution to complex and evil human problems.
5. Characterization of a culture of violence.